Top 10 Indian Science Stories of 2017





Science, 03 Feb - 2018 ,

Top 10 Indian Science Stories Of 2017
Credit: ISRO

Launching 104 satellites with one rocket On February 15, ISRO kicked off 2017 with a historic record-breaking launch. In one of the most complicated missions in the history of Indian space exploration, India, with the help of six other nations

1.  Launching 104 satellites with one rocket

On February 15, ISRO kicked off 2017 with a historic record-breaking launch. In one of the most complicated missions in the history of Indian space exploration, India, with the help of six other nations, launched 104 satellites into space. These satellites were launched in a single launch onboard PSLV-C37.

2. DRDO on the successful test-firing of the PDV interceptor missile

India has successfully conducted a test of its indigenously designed ballistic missile defense system on Abdul Kalam Island off the coast of Odisha in the Bay of Bengal, home to the Integrated Test Range, the Indian military’s primary missile test facility, on February 12, 2017 according to the Indian Ministry of Defense .   Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO), a new exo-atmospheric interceptor missile named the Prithvi Defense Vehicle (PDV) was tested. “PDV (Prithvi Defense Vehicle) mission is for engaging the targets in the exo-atmosphere region at an altitude above 50 kilometers (around 31 miles) of earth’s atmosphere. Both, the PDV interceptor and the two-stage target missile, were successfully engaged.

3. South Asia Satellite (GSAT-9) launch

The 2230 kg satellite was launched by Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark-II (GSLV-F09) into its planned Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) on May 5, 2017. This was the fourth consecutive success achieved by GSLV carrying indigenously developed Cryogenic Upper Stage. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, The Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, along with India, “will together achieve effective communication; better governance, better banking and better education in remote areas;more predictable weather forecasting, land monitoring and efficient resource mapping; linking people with top end medical services through tele-medicine; and a quick response to natural disasters.

4.Launch of ISRO's 'Fat Boy'

The 640-tonne Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV Mk III), also called 'fat boy', weights equal to 200 full-grown Asian elephants. The GSLV Mk III rocket carried a satellite weighing more than three tonnes into a high orbit above Earth. Additionally, the satellite will also aid in making India self-reliant for launching satellites as the GSLV would be capable of placing 4 tonne class Geosynchronous satellites into orbit. The Fat Boy satellite is 43.43 metres in height and 4 metre round. As opposed to the GSLV Mk II which can only place 2 tonne class of satellites in space, the GSLV Mk III will be able to place 4 tonne class satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits.

5. Indian scientists discovered galaxy ‘Saraswati’ in universe

For the first time in the country, a team of Indian scientists has discovered an "extremely large supercluster of galaxies", Saraswati, in the universe. This ultra large structure is on the direction of constellation Pisces and 400 billion light years away from Earth. Newly-discovered Saraswati supercluster" extends over a scale of 600 million light-years and may contain the mass equivalent of over 20 million billion suns. A cluster could roughly have galaxies ranging from 1000 to 10,000. A supercluster could have clusters ranging from 40 to 43.

6. IISc discovers a new electrical conductor

A new type of electrical conductor which was theoretically predicted nearly 20 years ago to exist at the edge of graphene, the planar hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms. The unique property these “edge states” is that they allow the flow of charge without impedance, even at room temperature and above. These states arise due to the zigzag manner in which the carbon atoms are placed at the edge of graphene. Many groups over the world have been trying to access these edges since the emergence of graphene in 2004.

7. Diagnosing early-stage cervical cancer using artificial intelligence

The AI identifies precancerous tissue, and also the stage of progression in minutes. The morphology of healthy and precancerous cervical tissue sites are quite different, and light that gets scattered from these tissues varies accordingly. Yet, it is difficult to discern with naked eyes the subtle differences in the scattered light characteristics of normal and precancerous tissue. Now, an artificial intelligence-based algorithm developed by a team of researchers from Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata and Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur makes this possible. The algorithm developed by the team not only differentiates normal and precancerous tissue but also makes it possible to tell different stages of progression of the disease within a few minutes and with accuracy exceeding 95%.

8. First Made in India robot-BRABO

A Tata group company, TAL Manufacturing Solutions, has unveiled India's first ever robot called 'BRABO'. It has already been showcased in the Make in India week that took place last year. The development cost, as reported, is Rs 10 crore.

9. New eco-friendly cement being tested for use in industry

The material and process of manufacturing contribute to reduced CO2 emissions. A research collaboration between IIT Madras,  India and Switzerland on a new cement material that can reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the manufacturing process is set to take off into implementation.

10. Indian scientists tap AI to identify aggressive breast cancer

A team of experts from IIT-Kharagpur (IIT-Kgp) and Tata Medical Centre (TMC), Kolkata, has devised a computer-assisted model they say can automatically grade breast canceraggressiveness, even in remote settings, providing fresh impetus to AI-based medical technology in India. It also seeks to reduce human error in identifying breast cancer of various levels of aggressiveness to assist in distinguishing normal and low and higher risk malignant tumours.

 


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