Artificial Intelligence- Thinking Behind A Robot





Technology, 15 Feb - 2014 ,

Artificial Intelligence- Thinking Behind A Robot
Artificial Intelligence- Thinking behind a Robot (Credit:dailymail.co.uk)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a field of computer science and engineering concerned with the computational understanding, which implies the use of a computer to model and replicate intelligent behavior, and with the creation of artifacts that exhibit su

Artificial Intelligence- Thinking behind a Robot 

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a field of computer science and engineering concerned with the computational understanding, which implies the use of a computer to model and replicate intelligent behavior, and with the creation of artifacts that exhibit such behavior. Computational psychology, computational philosophy, and machine intelligence define more closely Artificial intelligence. 

John McCarthy, who inscribed the AI term in 1955 as "The science and engineering of making intelligent machines”. The term "robot" itself, artificial intelligence is difficult to define. Eventually AI would be a recreation of the human thought process in man-made machine with our intellectual abilities. This would include the ability to learn just about anything, the ability to reason, the ability to use language and the ability to formulate original ideas. Man has been building tools that help him in solving problems of his environment for thousands of years. Many necessary tasks can no longer be accomplished by human intellect alone, so a new problem-solving approach is to describe artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence and robots often seem like fun science fiction, but in fact already affect our daily lives.  For example, services like Google and Amazon help us find what we want by using AI. It can be classified into at least four distinct areas game playing, language translation, problem solving, and pattern recognition. A digital computer basically has only two outstanding abilities such as the ability to perform arithmetic computations and the ability to compare two quantities and determine which is the largest. Both of these operations are performed exceptionally quickly.


Artificial Intelligence research has searched a number of solutions to this problem. For example, a chess master will avoid a particular chess position because it "feels too exposed “or an art critic can take one look at a statue and instantly recognize that it is a fake. These are intuitions or tendencies that are represented in the brain non-consciously and sub-symbolically. Knowledge like this informs supports and provides a context for symbolic, conscious knowledge. As with the related problem of sub-symbolic reasoning, it is hoped that situated AI, computational intelligence, or statistical AI will provide ways to represent this kind of knowledge. These techniques have been and continue to be applied to a broad range of problems that arise in robotics, e-commerce, medical diagnosis, gaming, mathematics, and military planning and logistics. Robots can't absorb any sort of information like a human can. Some robots can learn by mimicking human actions. In Japan, roboticists have taught a robot to dance by demonstrating the moves themselves. Some robots can  Kismet, a robot at M.I.T's Artificial Intelligence Lab, recognizes human body language and voice inflection and responds appropriately. Kismet's creators are interested in how humans and babies interact, based only on tone of speech and visual indication. This low level interaction could be the foundation of a human-like learning system. The program's director, Rodney Brooks, believes this is a more accurate model of human intelligence. Research in AI focuses on the development and analysis of algorithms that learn and perform intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention including with robotics, natural language processing (NLP), computer vision, computational biology, and e-commerce. Specifically, research is being conducted in estimation theory, mobility mechanisms, multi-agent negotiation, natural language interfaces, machine learning, active computer vision, probabilistic language models for use in spoken language interfaces, and the modeling and integration of visual, tactual, auditory and motor information.

Machine learning is the study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience and has been central to AI research since the field's inception. The AI robot or computer gathers facts about a situation through sensors or human input. The computer compares this information to stored data and decides what the information mean. The computer runs through various possible actions and predicts which action will be most successful based on the collected information. The robot stores this information and attempts the successful action the next time it encounters the same situation in very limited situations. Regression is the attempt to produce a function that describes the relationship between inputs and outputs and predicts how the outputs should change as the inputs change. Natural language processing  gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages that humans speak. Machine perception is the ability to use input from sensors such as cameras, microphones, sonar and others more exotic to deduce aspects of the world. Computer vision  is the ability to analyze visual input. The real challenge of AI is to understand how natural intelligence works; the trillions of connections between nerve fibers explain the human brain. The nerve fibers conduct electrical impulses establishing electrical connections between different neurons, thousands of neurons chains simultaneously in performing an intelligent act. Artificial neural networks are a large number of simple elements and their interconnection uses heuristic programming approach to solve problems, this technique combined with the computer's computational power.

An autonomous car, also known as a driverless or robotic car is a vehicle capable of fulfilling the human input capabilities of a car. It is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Demo robotic cars already exist, BMW is betting on a future where your car is able to make decisions.BMW Group's Research and Technology arm is working to make navigation systems more useful by endowing them with artificial intelligence and teaching them basic learning skills. The intelligent navigation creates potential benefits for other vehicle systems. For example, a hybrid's regenerative brakes could be notified of upcoming hills so the system can more efficiently charge the batteries, or the engine and transmission can be prepared for a freeway merge before you hit the off ramp. Computer Associates International (CA) has sold its vision of artificial intelligence software that can analyze information, forecast the future, and help companies plot their computer and network management strategies. Google is not the only major tech company dabbling in artificial intelligence; Facebook is also getting into the game. And, to prove it, the social network just hired an expert in machine learning and mobile robotics to run its AI lab. Recently latest supercomputer Watson is an artificially intelligent computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language, developed by IBM. The computer system was specifically developed to answer questions on the quiz show.


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